Dopo oltre vent'anni di discussione in Parlamento, la Camera ha approvato la riforma della cittadinanza italiana, che è ora all'attenzione del Senato: si tratta principalmente di una riforma che vuole riconoscere il diritto alla cittadinanza italiana alle seconde generazioni di immigrati, ovvero a quei figli di immigrati che sono nati in Italia da genitori extracomunitari o che, pur non essendo nati in Italia, hanno studiato in Italia, integrandosi così nel tessuto sociale italiano. Giovani e giovanissimi che per nascita o per cultura si sentono loro stessi italiani, ma che il diritto ancora non considera tali.

In cosa consistono le modifiche alla legge 5 febbraio 1992, n. 91 (Legge sulla Cittadinanza) ?

Rispetto all'attuale impronta della legge, che prevede l'attribuzione della cittadinanza italiana in base al principio giuridico del ius sanguinis – ovvero si ha diritto alla cittadinanza italiana per nascita da almeno un genitore italiano – la riforma della cittadinanza apre al principio giuridico del ius soli temperato e del ius culturae.

Sarà cittadino italiano, dunque, non solamente chi nasce da almeno un genitore italiano, ma anche chi nasce su suolo italiano da un genitore extracomunitario (seppur con alcuni requisiti che appresso indicheremo) e anche quei giovani extracomunitari che, pur non essendo nati in Italia, hanno terminato positivamente un ciclo di studio in Italia (ius culturae). Va precisato che anche con l'attuale Legge sulla Cittadinanza questi giovani e giovanissimi possono acquisire la cittadinanza italiana per naturalizzazione ma mentre con la Legge 91/92 l'attribuzione è una potestà dello Stato, con la modifica in discussione al Senato diventa un diritto. Inoltre, mentre con l'attuale Legge questi giovani devono attendere il compimento della maggiore età per chiedere di diventare italiani, con la riforma della cittadinanza lo diventano automaticamente, una volta accertata la sussistenza dei requisiti previsti dalla legge, e lo diventano dalla nascita – nel caso di ius soli temperato – o dal termine del ciclo di studi – nel caso del ius culturae. Insomma un bel passo avanti per l'Italia nel riconoscimento dei diritti delle seconde generazioni di immigrati.

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